Mucormycosis in Iran: A six-year retrospective experience

Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
Source:Journal de Mycologie Médicale

Author(s): S. Dolatabadi, B. Ahmadi, A. Rezaei-Matehkolaei, H. Zarrinfar, A. Skiada, H. Mirhendi, R. Nashibi, F. Niknejad, M. Nazeri, A. Rafiei, M. Gharaghani, M. Erami, S. Taghipour, F. Piri, K. Makimura

Mucormycosis is a devastating infection caused by Mucoralean fungi (Mucormycotina, Mucorales). Data concerning the global epidemiology of mucormycosis are scarce and little is known about the characteristics of mucormycosis in Iran. In this study, we aimed to understand the distribution of this infection in Iran retrospectively and to ascertain whether the patterns of infection are associated with specific host factors or not. A total of 208 cases were included in this study occurring during 2008–2014 and were validated according to (EORTC/MSG) criteria. A rising trend as significant increase from 9.7% in 2008 to 23.7% in 2014 was observed. The majority of patients were female (51.4%) with median age of 50 and the infections were seen mostly in autumn season (39.4%). Diabetes mellitus (75.4%) was the most common underlying condition and sinus involvement (86%) was the mostly affected site of infection. Amphotericin B (AmB) was the drug of choice for the majority of cases. Sixty four isolates did not show any growth in the lab and only 21 cases were evaluated by ITS sequencing, among them; Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus was the dominant species. Considering the high mortality rate of mucormycosis, early and accurate diagnosis, with the aid of molecular methods may provide accurate treatments and improve the survival rate. Therefore, increased monitoring and awareness of this life-threatening disease is critical.

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